|Master of Science programme:|
|» || |
|» || |
|» || |
|» || |
|» || ||
Geoelectricity. Natural fields. Artificial fields
Electrical properties of rocks. The main methods to investigate the Earth's electrical conductivity at
large depths with the use of sources of static and alternating fields.
Global magnetovariation investigations on the base of Sq, Dst (and other) variations analysis.
Electrical conductivity of lower mantle in according with long–period variations data.
Earth's electrical conductivity estimation as a result of joint interpretation of magnetotelluric soundings
and global magnetovariation sounding.
Gravitational and magnetic fields of Earth
The course consists of two parts which include questions of gravitational and main Earth's magnetic fields.
Gravitational field — The task of this part is the introduction in problem of studying of Earth's form (figure)
by gravitational method. There are summary of evolution of ideas of Earth's figure and ways its investigation.
The gravimetric direction develops based on Newton's, Geugens's, Clero's ideas: notion about the figure of "normal"
Earth and distribution of gravity (Clero's theorem). The main attention is given to question of measuring of geoid's form
(Stoks problem) and physical Earth's surface (Molodensky task). There is the theory of solar and lunar rising tides.
Principles of sputnik's gravimeter are analyzed.
Earth's magnetic field — The structure of modern geomagnetic field and methods of its analytic description
are consider arheomagnetism and paleomagnetism as methods of investigation of field on historical and geological past.
The mechanism of generation of the geomagnetic field, its energetic sources.
Principles of seismology
Seismic body and surface waves are considered as a source of information about the earthquake source and the Earth's structure.
Methods for determination of kinematic and dynamic parameters of the source are described.
Problems of seismic zoning and earthquake prediction are discussed. Methods and results of determination of the Earth's
structure from seismological data are presented. Seismological arguments for plate tectonics are outlined.
Elements of seismometry are also presented.
Space plasma physics
The general information on plasma physics: Movement of charged particles in the magnetic field. Adiabatic invariants of movement.
Magnetization currents. The conductivity of full–ionized gas. The elements of magnetic hydrodynamics:
Approximation of solid medium. Equation of frozen–in field. Boundary conditions, surface discontinuities.
Alfven waves. MHD–instability.
Introduction to solar–terrestrial physics
Principal parameters of the Sun. Solar energy sources. The main structure of the Sun and solar atmosphere structure.
Parker's model of expanding corona. Solar wind. Disturbed Sun. Solar activity and its cycles.
Connection of the polar aurora, ionospheric and geomagnetic disturbances with processes at the Sun.
Time–varying geomagnetic field
The history of development and application of magnetospheric (solar–terrestrial) physics.
Space plasma and methods of its description. The main physical notions of magnetosphere, ionosphere and current systems.
Magnetic variations and their classification, indices of magnetic activity.
Principles of elastic media dynamics
Eulerian and Lagrangian coordinates. Equation of continuity. Strain tensor and Geometrical sense of strain tensor.
Symmetry of stress tensor. Main types of the point sources. Helmholtz theorem. Potentials in isotropic homogeneous elastic medium.
Homogeneous plane wave in isotropic elastic media. P– and S– waves velocities, polarization vectors. Inhomogeneous plane waves.
Energy flux. Reflection-transmission coefficients.