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PALAEMAGNETISM AND ROCK MAGNETISM
Investigation of the Earth magnetic field is one of the mainstreams of the modern geophysics: the morphology of modern field is studied in connection with questions of navigations and problems of the magnetic geophysical exploring; history of field (palaeomagnetism) — as practically the only geophysical method of studying the Earth interiors evolution: its core and processes running in it, quantitative analysis of processes of the forming a terrestrial crust (new global tectonic).
The Master Program "Palaeomagnetism and Rock Magnetism" is oriented to qualify the multidimensional geophysicists with specialization in the field of the modern geomagnetism and palaeomagnetism, including all-around training for the whole complex of methods of palaeomagnetism studies.
Principles of the geophysical inverse problem solution
The mathematical grounds for solution of the inverse problems of geophysics are given. The
methods of regularization for incorrectly stated problems are considered. Statistical methods of
estimation of searching parameters for geophysical objects are presented. The algorithms for rayed
and diffractional geophysical tomography are considered.
Data analysis and processing of geophysical information
The modern methods of geophysical data processing are considered: Fourier transform, Laplace
transform, correlation analysis, estimate of the power spectrum, mutual spectral analysis,
maximum entropy spectral analysis, cepstrum analysis, deconvolution (inverse) filtering, bondpass
filtering, Batteruorte filtering, wave propagation in the layed media as filtering process, velocity
filtering, gomomorphic filtering.
Geothermics and radiometry
Heat flow, temperature evaluation by heat flow data. Estimation of the Earth's interior uppermost and lowermost temperature starting from elastic properties of rocks: temperature of melting and adiabatic compression. Temperature assessment on the base of the Earth's electrical conductivity data. Thermal history of the Earth. Main contributors of the heat inside the Earth. The problem of the Earth's heating as a consequence of radioactive elements decomposition.
The subject of geology, its branches. Endogenous, exogenous and metamorphic processes in Earth
crust. Introduction to minerology and petrology. Geophysical methoads in geology. Geotectonic
zoning of Russia, its mineral resources and possibility to increase it.
Lectures are followed by geological practice in Crimea.
Disciplines (Lectures) for choice
Paleo– and archeomagnetism
The course reviews the current state–of–art in archeo– and paleomagnetism. The introductory part
gives a summary of main ideas concerning the present–day geomagnetic field: surface distribution
of its elements and their variation; a notion of paleomagnetic dipole is introduced. Basic postulates
of paleomagnetism are formulated. Methods of archeo– and paleomagnetic investigations are
reviewed, and the results obtained are discussed.
Methods of reception of paleomagnetic information
The course gives basic knowledge of physical and geophysical grounds of paleomagnetism
as a branch of geophysics; the role of paleomagnetism in the creation of modern geology and
geophysics is highlighted. A notion of paleomagnetic information is introduced; principles of
interpretation of paleomagnetic data and methods of evaluation of the reliability of paleomagnetic
results are considered. Methods of paleomagnetic measurements are reviewed as applied for
igneous and sedimentary rocks with the emphasis of peculiarity of various kinds of rocks as
Foundations of ferromagnetism
The main subject of the course is all the
magnetic phenomena — paramagnetism, diamagnetism and ferromagnetism. The most part of the
course is devoted to the study of ferromagnetics because they are responsible for rock–magnetic
phenomena. The classical theories of paraand
diamagnetism (after Langevin, Weiss, Frenkel, Geizenberg) as well as modern conception of
quantum mechanics concerning the origin of ferromagnetism are considered in the course.
Much attention is given to the theory of isothermal magnetization, energetic balance during
remagnetization processes, magnetic anisotropy of magnetic crystals, theory of domain structure,
magnetic hysteresis, and to the magnetization processes of single– and pseudosingledomain
particles and subsingledomain areas. The influence of physical defects in crystal lattice on
magnetization of real crystals as well as dependence of structure-sensible parameters of ferrits on
temperature are considered.
The course is destined to M.Sc. students in geophysics specializing in the field of
Palaeomagnetology and Rock-magnetism. Rocks are very specific magnetic objects. They contain
all possible kinds of physical defects of ferrimagnetic crystals dispersed among non-magnetic
(silicate) matrix. There are also many kinds of remanent magnetization of rocks, which is the main
"carrier" of palaeomagnetic information in rocks. The main kinds of magnetic state of rocks,
coercive spectrum, Preisach-Neel diagram conception, magnetic properties of main natural
ferromagnetic minerals are considered in the course. Much attention is paid to structural features
of magnetite. Several lectures are devoted to the low-temperature memory of magnetite-bearing
rocks as well as to high-temperature magnetic memory of hypergenetically altered (cationdeficient)