Physics of the magnetosphere
(Lecturer: Vladimir S. Semenov)
Magnetospheric structure (magnetic field and plasma in the magnetosphere).
Solar wind interaction with the geomagnetic field. Numerical models of the magnetosphere. Electric fields and plasma
convection in the magnetosphere. Generation of beams of energetic particles precipitating into the ionosphere. Zones
of corpuscular precipitations and magnetospheric structure. Geomagnetic disturbances. Development of magnetospheric
substorm.
(64 hours)
Disturbances in the magnetosphere
(Lecturer: Victor A.
Sergeev)
Theoretical models, observations and simulation results are combined to form a coherent picture of
particle acceleration and energy transformation in the open convecting magnetosphere. Different aspects of internal
magnetospheric dynamics including explosive energy dissipation events (substorms) as well as the convection `crisis
problem are specifically addressed. Generation of field aligned currents and field-aligned acceleration in the
3-dimensional current system are described as basic phenomena in magnetospheric-ionospheric coupling.
(64
hours)
Physics of then polar aurora
(Lecturer: Andrey L. Kotikov)
Morphology of
aurora; auroral zones and magnetosphere's structure. Interaction of energetic proton and electron beams with the
atmosphere. Acceleration of electrons in the double layers potential regions. Development of substorm in polar aurora
and in the magnetosphere's tail. Dynamics of polar aurorae and the structure of electric fields in the Earth's
magnetosphere and ionosphere. Stable Auroral Red arcs and their connection with Disturbed Ring current.
(48
hours)
Physics of the highlatitude ionosphere
(Lecturer: Andrey L. Kotikov)
Problems
of the physics and morphology of the highlatitude ionosphere are considered. The distribution of the different types
of the layers in E region, ionic composition, the features of the auroral sporadic layer are explained as a result of
the layer formation mechanisms . The association with the auroral particle precipitation zones are considered. The
physics of the structure of the highlatitude layer F2 is studied. The convection of the ionospheric plasma, the drag
of the neutral component, gravitatic waves are considered. By the consideration of the physics - chemical processes in
D region the most attention are devoted to the auroral absorption, the absorption in the polar cap, the storm in the
absorption and the riometer measurements. The charge particle diffusion in anisotropic gyrotropic plasma is studied.
The evolution of the plasma instabilities is investigated.
(48 hours)
Magnetic
reconnections
(Lecturer: Vladimir S. Semenov)
The problem of rapid conversion of magnetic energy
into plasma energy is considered in details including (i) usual Ohm dissipation; (ii) tearing-instability; (iii)
Petschek-type reconnection. The importance of this process is illustrated on the examples of solar flares,
magnetospheric substorms, flux transfer events (FTEs) at the dayside magnetopause and others.
(64 hours)
Additional chapters of MHD and plasma physics
(Lecturer: Andrei A. Samsonov)
The
movement of ideal and viscous fluids. Boundary layer. Propagation of sound waves in the moving media. Diffusion.
MHD-discontinuities in plasma. Bow shocks. MHD-instabilities of ideally conducting plasma. Nonlinear waves. Solitons.
Turbulence in space plasma.
(48 hours)
Non-linear problems of
magnetohydrodynamics
(Lecturer: Vladimir S. Semenov)
In the space magnetic fields and plasma are strongly coupled, and therefore
very often magnetic flux tubes can be considered as non-linear MHD-strings. A special method based on introduction
so-called frozen-in coordinate system is considered in details with application to the "load"-"unload" processes in
cosmic plasma.
(48 hours)
Numerical methods of solving some MHD problems
(Lecturer: Andrei A. Samsonov)
Numerical methods of solving magnetohydrodynamic problems are considered.
Conservation and non-conservation form of MHD equations. Non-dimensional parameters. Types of equations in partial
derivatives. Characteristics of the system of MHD equations. Cauchy problem and the initial-boundary value problem for
the system of equations of hyperbolic type. Methods of numerical solution of MHD equations. Explicit and implicit
numerical schemes. Lax-Wendroff and MacCormack numerical methods. Stability of a numerical scheme.
Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy condition. Explicit artificial diffusion. Boundary conditions. Open and symmetric boundary.
Examples of solving some MHD problems.
(32 hours)